Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Based Therapeutics, Update

Author(s): K.W. Pankiewicz, R. Petrelli, R. Singh, K. Felczak.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 22 , Issue 34 , 2015

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Abstract:

About 500 NAD (P)-dependent enzymes in the cell use NAD (P) as a cofactor or a substrate. This family of broadly diversified enzymes is crucial for maintaining homeostasis of all living organisms. The NAD binding domain of these enzymes is conserved and it was believed that NAD mimics would not be of therapeutic value due to lack of selectivity. Consequently, only mycophenolic acid which selectively binds at the cofactor pocket of NAD-dependent IMP-dehydrogenase (IMPDH) has been approved as an immunosuppressant. Recently, it became clear that the NAD (P)-binding domain was structurally much more diversified than anticipated and numerous highly potent and selective inhibitors of NAD (P) dependent enzymes have been reported. It is likely, that as in the case of protein kinases inhibitors, inhibitors of NAD (P)-dependent enzymes would find soon their way to the clinic. In this review, recent developments of selective inhibitors of NAD-dependent human IMPDH, as well as inhibitors of IMPDHs from parasites, and from bacterial sources are reported. Therapies against Cryptosporidium parvum and the development of new antibiotics that are on the horizon will be discussed. New inhibitors of bacterial NAD-ligases, NAD-kinases, NMN-adenylyl transferases, as well as phosphoribosyl transferases are also described. Although none of these compounds has yet to be approved, the progress in revealing and understanding crucial factors that might allow for designing more potent and efficient drug candidates is enormous and highly encouraging.

Keywords: NAD analogues, NAD-dependent enzymes, IMP-dehydrogenase, NAD-kinase, bacterial ligases, NMNadenylyl transferase, phosphoribosyl transferase, enzyme inhibitors, drug design.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 22
ISSUE: 34
Year: 2015
Page: [3991 - 4028]
Pages: 38
DOI: 10.2174/0929867322666150821100720
Price: $58

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