PET and SPECT Radiotracers for Alzheimer's Disease

Author(s): Killian Oukoloff , Monika Cieslikiewicz-Bouet , Sovy Chao , Emilie Da Costa Branquinho , Cedric Bouteiller , Ludovic Jean , Pierre-Yves Renard .

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 22 , Issue 28 , 2015

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Abstract:

The two main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in the brain are senile plaques (SPs) composed of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. These hallmarks are associated with a cholinergic deficit. While the process leading to the development of AD is complex and multifactorial, and the etiology of AD is not completely known, it is nowadays clear that AD is a multifaceted illness requiring the combination of synergetic treatment strategies. Because definite diagnosis is achieved by postmortem examination of the brain, new noninvasive diagnostic imaging modalities for AD are in high demand, both to detect and monitor the evolution of this sickness, and evaluate the efficacy of treatments. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear molecular imaging technique that uses radiopharmaceuticals labeled with a positron-emitting isotope (carbon-11, fluorine-18, copper-64, gallium- 68…), to visualize in vivo cellular metabolism with high-spatial resolution and unique sensitivity, while Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) using radioisotopes such as technetium-99m or iodine-123. Besides being a powerful tool for diagnosis (mostly in oncology with [18F]-FDG), PET experiments can provide information about biochemical mechanisms in living tissues or interactions between neurotransmitter and brain receptors. For the past two decades, numerous radiopharmaceuticals have been developed for imaging the lesions observed in AD patients. Tau aggregates and Aβ plaques can also be visualized and quantified by mean of specific radioligands. The latter has been the focus of intense research efforts lately, leading to new FDA approved radiopharmaceuticals. This paper aimed at summarizing the recent advances in PET and SPECT imaging of AD pathophysiology.

Keywords: Amyloid, radiotracer, PET, SPECT, tau protein.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 22
ISSUE: 28
Year: 2015
Page: [3278 - 3304]
Pages: 27
DOI: 10.2174/0929867322666150805094645
Price: $58

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