Metastasis accounts for 90% of the mortality associated with breast cancer. Upregulated expression of members
of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of secreted copper amine oxidases catalyzes the crosslinking of collagens and
elastin in the extracellular matrix. LOXs are linked to the development and metastatic progression of breast cancers. Accordingly,
aberrant expression of LOX-like 2 (LOXL2) is observed in poorly differentiated, high-grade tumors and is predictive
of diseases recurrence, and for decreased overall patient survival. Therefore, LOXL2 expression may serve as a
biomarker for breast cancer. Mechanistically, hydrogen peroxide is produced as a byproduct of LOXL2 when using an
appropriate substrate, lysine. We exploited this chemistry to generate a revolutionary gold-based electrochemical biosensor
capable of accurately detecting nanomolar quantities of LOXL2 in mouse blood, and in human blood samples. Two
different sources of the blood samples obtained from breast cancer patients were used in this study indicating the applicability
of detecting LOXL2 in breast cancers patients. Limited numbers of urine specimens from breast cancer patients
were also tested. Collectively, all of these tests show the promise and potential of this biosensor for detecting LOXL2 as a
surrogate biomarker of breast cancer. This work is described in patent number WO2014052962 (2014).
Keywords: Biomarker, lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), metastasis of breast cancers, thin gold film biosensor.
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