Melanoma prevalently occurs on parts of the body that have been overexposed to the sun. However, it
can also originate in the nervous system, eye and mucous membranes. Melanoma has been thought for a long time
to arise through a series of genetic mechanisms involving numerous irreversible changes within the human
genome. However, recently, “epimutations” have attracted considerable attention owing to their high prevalence
rate and reversible nature. These observations opened up new perspectives in the use of epidrugs with the potential
for restoring the “correct” control of neoplastic genomes. Here, we focused on the common consensus on genetics
and epigenetics in melanoma. We also discussed the clinical applications of regulators of epigenetic enzymes able
to revert the epigenetic and metabolic hallmarks of melanoma cells. Such anti-neoplastic agents affect the expression profile of antioncogenes,
proto-oncogenes, and microRNAs resulting in enhanced differentiation, apoptosis, and growth inhibition.
Keywords: Cutaneous melanoma, epigenetics, genetics, mucosal melanoma, uveal melanoma.
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