Role of Genetics and Epigenetics in Mucosal, Uveal, and Cutaneous Melanomagenesis

Author(s): Mario Venza, Maria Visalli, Concetta Beninati, Carmelo Biondo, Diana Teti, Isabella Venza.

Journal Name: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 16 , Issue 5 , 2016

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Abstract:

Melanoma prevalently occurs on parts of the body that have been overexposed to the sun. However, it can also originate in the nervous system, eye and mucous membranes. Melanoma has been thought for a long time to arise through a series of genetic mechanisms involving numerous irreversible changes within the human genome. However, recently, “epimutations” have attracted considerable attention owing to their high prevalence rate and reversible nature. These observations opened up new perspectives in the use of epidrugs with the potential for restoring the “correct” control of neoplastic genomes. Here, we focused on the common consensus on genetics and epigenetics in melanoma. We also discussed the clinical applications of regulators of epigenetic enzymes able to revert the epigenetic and metabolic hallmarks of melanoma cells. Such anti-neoplastic agents affect the expression profile of antioncogenes, proto-oncogenes, and microRNAs resulting in enhanced differentiation, apoptosis, and growth inhibition.

Keywords: Cutaneous melanoma, epigenetics, genetics, mucosal melanoma, uveal melanoma.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2016
Page: [528 - 538]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1871520615666150803124139
Price: $58

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