Assessment of Retinal Structural and Functional Characteristics in Eyes with Autoimmune Retinopathy

Author(s): Y.J. Sepah, M.A. Sadiq, M. Hassan, M. Hanout, M. Soliman, A. Agarwal, R. Afridi, S.G. Coupland, Q.D. Nguyen.

Journal Name: Current Molecular Medicine

Volume 15 , Issue 6 , 2015

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Abstract:

Purpose: To evaluate the thicknesses of individual retinal layers, and the correlation between structural changes and functional loss using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans and electroretinograms (ERG), in eyes with autoimmune retinopathy (AIR).

Methods: SD-OCT raster scans of 12 eyes from 6 patients serologically diagnosed with AIR were evaluated. Retinal layers were segmented along a 5 mm horizontal scan passing through the fovea. Retinal layers analyzed include full retinal thickness (FRT), retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s membrane complex (RPE+BM complex), photoreceptor layer (PRL), inner nuclear layer (INL), combined ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers (GCL+), nerve fiber layer (NFL), and combined GCL+ and NFL layers (GCL+/NFL). Changes in the thicknesses of the layers were assessed in 0.5 mm increments along the B-scan in the central, nasal, and temporal regions. These recorded values were compared to corresponding values of 51 eyes from 51 subjects with no known ocular pathology. Full-field ERGs were obtained at corresponding visits and were interpreted by a grader masked to the diagnoses and OCT findings.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 59.5 years (range, 33-83), with 4 males (66.6%). Within the control population of 51 subjects, mean age was 51.5 years (range, 40-75), with 25 males (49%). Eyes with AIR showed a loss of retinal tissue compared to eyes with no known ocular pathology at the fovea. Specifically, the FRT, RPE+BM complex, and PRL exhibited thinning of statistically significance. ERG findings demonstrated a functional deficit which showed a good correlation with structural loss. Fifty (50) percent of eyes experienced central photoreceptor (rod and cone) dysfunction and 75% of eyes displayed peripheral photoreceptor (rod and cone) dysfunction.

Conclusions: Eyes with AIR show a loss of retinal tissue compared to eyes with no known ocular pathology. The greatest loss appears to occur in the RPE and PRL. ERG findings correlate strongly with the loss of tissue seen in these layers. Thus, therapeutic options may be targeted to preserve these regions of the retina.

Keywords: Autoimmune retinopathy, retina, structure, function, optical coherence tomography, electroretinography.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2015
Page: [578 - 586]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1566524015666150731104626
Price: $58

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