Indolealkylamines from Toad Vertebrates and Sea Invertebrates - Their Identification and Potential Activities on the Central Nervous System

Author(s): Abu Hasanat Md. Zulfiker, Gian Luigi Mariottini, Ji Qi, I. Darren Grice, Ming Q. Wei.

Journal Name: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
(Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Central Nervous System Agents)

Volume 16 , Issue 3 , 2016

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Abstract:

Indolealkylamines (IAAs) are biogenic amines and derivatives of 5-hydroxytryptamine, acting primarily on serotonin receptors. IAAs are often considered the most thoroughly investigated group of aromatic amines in the amphibian skin. On the contrary, at present the detailed knowledge of these compounds in lower organisms is still limited and the biogenic amine receptors, mediating hormonal and modulatory functions, are largely unknown in primitive invertebrates. However, some active research is currently underway investigating this class of biogenic amines. Notably, during the last three decades several investigations have demonstrated the biological activity of endogenous biogenic amines in cnidarians, which are known to be the lowest beings equipped with an effective, even though rudimentary, nervous system. Toads, especially those from the Bufonidae family, constitute a significant part of the amphibian family and are an identified source of IAAs. To date fourteen IAAs have been identified in the skins of toad species. All are 5-substituted IAA derivatives acting mainly on the central nervous system (CNS), with most exhibiting some degrees of 5-HT2A receptor selectivity. This selective ability presents potential for their use in the development of treatments for various disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders and chronic pain conditions. There are indications that some IAAs may also show subclass selectivity through binding to multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes. Thus, there exists an additional promising platform for the development of therapeutics targeting multiple 5-HT receptors. In this review, IAAs occurring naturally in various species of toad skins, which have been identified and isolated since 1944 are summarized and comparisons are made with similar biogenic amines recognized in cnidarians to date. Such comparisons highlight the potential to utilize existing knowledge gathered from vertebrates, such as toads in order to improve the understanding of the activities of such compounds in lower invertebrates.

Keywords: Indolealkylamines, cnidarians, toad, marine, vertebrate, invertebrate, 5-HT, 5-HT2A.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2016
Page: [197 - 207]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1871524915666150724100245
Price: $58

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