How to Make a Non-Antigenic Protein (Auto) Antigenic: Molecular Complementarity Alters Antigen Processing and Activates Adaptive-Innate Immunity Synergy

Author(s): Robert Root-Bernstein.

Journal Name: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 15 , Issue 10 , 2015

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Abstract:

Evidence is reviewed that complementary proteins and peptides form complexes with increased antigencity and/or autoimmunogenicity. Five case studies are highlighted: 1) diphtheria toxin-antitoxin (antibody), which induces immunity to the normally non-antigenic toxin, and autoimmune neuritis; 2) tryptophan peptide of myelin basic protein and muramyl dipeptide (“adjuvant peptide”), which form a complex that induces experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; 3) an insulin and glucagon complex that is far more antigenic than either component individually; 4) various causes of experimental autoimmune myocarditis such as C protein in combination with its antibody, or coxsackie B virus in combination with the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor; 5) influenza A virus haemagglutinin with the outer membrane protein of the Haemophilus influenzae, which increases antigenicity. Several mechanisms cooperate to alter immunogenicity. Complexation alters antigen processing, protecting the components against proteolysis, altering fragmentation and presenting novel antigens to the immune system. Complementary antigens induce complementary adaptive immune responses (complementary antibodies and/or T cell receptors) that produce circulating immune complexes (CIC). CIC stimulate innate immunity. Concurrently, complementary antigens stimulate multiple Toll-like receptors that synergize to over-produce cytokines, which further stimulate adaptive immunity. Thus innate and adaptive immunity form a positive feedback loop. If components of the complex mimic a host protein, then autoimmunity may result. Enhanced antigenicity for production of improved vaccines and/or therapeutic autoimmunity (e.g., against cancer cells) might be achieved by using information from antibody or TCR recognition sites to complement an antigen; by panning for complements in randomized peptide libraries; or using antisense peptide strategies to design complements.

Keywords: Altered antigen processing, antigenic complementarity, antisense peptides, molecular mimicry, synergism, therapeutic autoimmunity, toll-like receptors, vaccines.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 10
Year: 2015
Page: [1242 - 1259]
Pages: 18
DOI: 10.2174/1871520615666150716105057
Price: $58

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