In Vivo Anti-Tumor Effects of Flavokawain A in 4T1 Breast Cancer Cell-Challenged Mice

Author(s): Nadiah Abu , Nurul Elyani Mohamed , Swee Keong Yeap , Kian Lam Lim , M Nadeem Akhtar , Aimi Jamil Zulfadli , Beh Boon Kee , Mohd Puad Abdullah , Abdul Rahman Omar , Noorjahan Banu Alitheen .

Journal Name: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 15 , Issue 7 , 2015

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Abstract:

Flavokawain A is a chalcone that can be found in the kava-kava plant (Piper methsyticum) extract. The kava-kava plant has been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The state of the immune system, and the inflammatory process play vital roles in the progression of cancer. The immunomodulatary effects and the anti-inflammatory effects of flavokawain A in a breast cancer murine model have not been studied yet. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate the basic mechanism as to how flavokawain A regulates and enhance the immune system as well as impeding the inflammatory process in breast cancer-challenged mice. Based on our study, it is interesting to note that flavokawain A increased the T cell population; both Th1 cells and CTLs, aside from the natural killer cells. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 were also elevated in the serum of flavokawain A-treated mice. Apart from that, flavokawain A also decreased the weight and volume of the tumor, and managed to induce apoptosis in them. In terms of inflammation, flavokawain A-treated mice had reduced level of major pro-inflammatory mediators; NO, iNOS, NF-KB, ICAM and COX-2. Overall, flavokawain A has the potential to not only enhance antitumor immunity, but also prevents the inflammatory process in a cancer-prone microenvironment.

Keywords: Anti-cancer, chalcone, flavokawain A, immunomodulation.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 7
Year: 2015
Page: [905 - 915]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/187152061507150713111557
Price: $58

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