In Vivo Anti-Tumor Effects of Flavokawain A in 4T1 Breast Cancer Cell-Challenged Mice
Nurul Elyani Mohamed,
Swee Keong Yeap,
Kian Lam Lim,
M Nadeem Akhtar,
Aimi Jamil Zulfadli,
Beh Boon Kee,
Mohd Puad Abdullah,
Abdul Rahman Omar,
Noorjahan Banu Alitheen.
Flavokawain A is a chalcone that can be found in the kava-kava plant (Piper methsyticum) extract. The
kava-kava plant has been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The
state of the immune system, and the inflammatory process play vital roles in the progression of cancer. The
immunomodulatary effects and the anti-inflammatory effects of flavokawain A in a breast cancer murine model
have not been studied yet. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate the basic mechanism as to how flavokawain A regulates and enhance the
immune system as well as impeding the inflammatory process in breast cancer-challenged mice. Based on our study, it is interesting to
note that flavokawain A increased the T cell population; both Th1 cells and CTLs, aside from the natural killer cells. The levels of IFN-γ
and IL-2 were also elevated in the serum of flavokawain A-treated mice. Apart from that, flavokawain A also decreased the weight and
volume of the tumor, and managed to induce apoptosis in them. In terms of inflammation, flavokawain A-treated mice had reduced level
of major pro-inflammatory mediators; NO, iNOS, NF-KB, ICAM and COX-2. Overall, flavokawain A has the potential to not only
enhance antitumor immunity, but also prevents the inflammatory process in a cancer-prone microenvironment.
Keywords: Anti-cancer, chalcone, flavokawain A, immunomodulation.
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