The cells of the innate immune system continually undergo surveillance of the extracellular
milieu to serve as the first line of defense against invading microbial pathogens. As a result, these
innate immune cells have evolved receptors to sense microbial motifs and danger signals. The
inflammasome is an important component of the innate immune system’s “arsenal” against invading
microbes such as viruses and bacteria and acts as a homeostatic checkpoint to regulate inflammation.
Inflammasomes are cytosolic multi-protein complexes that activate caspase 1 and 11, which result in
the production of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, and cell death. Several studies have
uncovered the mechanisms of inflammasome activation in response to various stimuli ranging from environmental
stimulants to microbial components. This mini-review summarizes the current developments and updates in the
mechanism of action of inflammasomes.
Keywords: DAMP, inflammasome, interleukin 1, immunity, NOD-like receptors, PAMP.
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