Systems Biology Research into Cardiovascular Disease: Contributions of Lipidomics-based Approaches to Biomarker Discovery

Author(s): Hector De Leon, Stephanie Boue, Justyna Szostak, Manuel C. Peitsch, Julia Hoeng.

Journal Name: Current Drug Discovery Technologies

Volume 12 , Issue 3 , 2015

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Atherosclerosis is a progressive inflammatory thickening of the arterial wall resulting from increased cellularity and the accumulation of lipids, cellular debris, and extracellular matrix. Conventional determinations of plasma lipoproteins have resulted in a wealth of clinical data documenting the correlation between low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Current mass spectrometry methodologies allow the detection and quantification of multiple molecular lipid species with various structural and functional roles. The opportunities provided by lipidomics for lipid-based biomarker discovery are prominent in disease diagnostics, monitoring of drug efficacy, and translational model development. For example, the analysis of human plasma samples assessing the effects of statins has shown correlative effects between the LDL/HDL ratio and sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine. Additionally, at the vascular tissue level, lipids from different classes are enriched in human plaques of coronary arteries and in the aortas of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice exposed to cigarette smoke, highlighting a set of lipid biomarkers for translational research. Molecular lipidomics will provide insights in which other lipids may play important roles in vascular disease progression and will serve as novel markers for preventive as well as therapeutic purposes.

Keywords: ApoE-/- mice, lipid biomarkers, lipidomics, mass spectrometry.

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VOLUME: 12
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2015
Page: [129 - 154]
Pages: 26
DOI: 10.2174/1570163812666150702123319
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