Recent Advances in Acute Type A Aortic Dissection

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Type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD) is an acute cardiovascular condition that is normally associated with genetic conditions such as Marfan Syndrome, but it can also occur in patients with no ...
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Epidemiology of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection

Pp. 3-29 (27)

Wen-Huang Li and Ping-Yen Liu

Abstract

Acute type A aortic dissection (TAAAD) is a critical condition in patients presenting with chest pain, but it seems relatively rarer than acute coronary syndrome. The incidence of TAAAD is estimated at 2.0-4.04 per 100,000/year; about 22% of patients with TAAAD die before being sent to a hospital. The mortality is high but is different based on the location of the dissection. Many classifications systems, e.g., the DeBakey, Stanford, Lansman, and European Working Group, have been developed to classify the types of TAAAD. First, we define TAAAD and its two variants, intramural hemorrhage (IMH) and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU). Second, we introduce the classification systems of TAAAD. Third, we show the incidence, prevalence, and mortality of TAAAD and its variants. Fourth, we discuss the gender, age, and ethnic differences in the presentations of TAAAD. In the last part of the chapter, we talk about the incidence and mortality of TAAAD comorbid with some specific conditions, diseases, and disorders, viz., aortic aneurysm, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, pregnancy, trauma, substance abuse, Marfan, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, and coarctation of the aorta.

Keywords:

Acute aortic dissection, Age distribution, Aortic diameter, Chronobiology, Cocaine, DeBakey, Epidemiology, European Working Group Classification, Gender difference, Genetic factors, Geography, Incidence, Intramural hemorrhage, Lansman, Mortality, Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer, Prevalence, Risk factors, Stanford, Survival.

Affiliation:

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital and College of Medicine, 138 Sheng-Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan.