The mucosal surfaces of the intestinal tract are constantly exposed to complex microbial
communities that contain commensal microorganisms and potential pathogens. Therefore, hosts harbor
multiple molecular mechanisms to modulate the gut innate immunity to achieve gut-microbe homeostasis.
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) and nucleotide oligomerization
domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR), play a key role in sensing pathogens and promoting
the induction of innate effectors. Gut microbiota, through PRRs, can modulate the expression of genes
involved in inflammatory responses and the production of antimicrobial peptides. In turn, the expression of PRRs affects
the structure of gut microbiota in health or disease status. Deficiency in PRRs such as NOD2 and TLR5 can alter the gut
microbiota composition in mice. The crosstalk between PRRs and microbiota connects the microbial action with the host
response. This article outlines recent advances in the role of immune sensors in the gut microbiota balance and the related
Keywords: Gut homeostasis, gut microbiota, NOD2, PRRs, Toll-like receptors.
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