Homeostasis of the immune system depends on several factors. The gastrointestinal tract
plays an important role in maintaining our immune system. With this aim, the intestinal immune system
interacts with epithelial barrier molecules, especially tight junction proteins, that are key molecules
involved in controlling paracellular permeability to increase the protection barrier against external
antigens or possibly to respond to commensal microorganisms. During intestinal inflammatory diseases,
the expression of innate immune receptors in intestinal epithelial cells and infiltration of immune
cells are related, but it is still unclear how the immune system induces modulation of paracellular permeability. In
this review, we provide an overview of the understanding of how the immune system modulates the expression of tight
junctions to maintain the mucosal immune system.
Keywords: Gut microbiota, immune system, intestinal epithelium, intestinal permeability, tight junctions.
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