The Pd-catalyzed P–C couplings of aryl, hetaryl and vinyl derivatives and
species with a P(O)H function, typically dialkyl phosphites and secondary phosphine
oxides giving rise to phosphonates and phosphine oxides are summarized with special
emphasis on the green chemical variations. A great variety of reactions are discussed to
demonstrate the different conditions and catalyst systems described.
environmentally friendly protocols include the use of a phase transfer catalyst and the
microwave technique. The best way is to perform the P–C coupling reactions under Pligand-
free and solvent-free conditions.
Keywords: Hirao reaction, P-C coupling, Pd-catalyst, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, P-ligand-free.
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