Type 2 diabetes is characterized by decreased functional beta-cell mass, as a consequence
of metabolic stress associated with obesity, aging, insulin resistance and pregnancy. The metabolic
stress is caused by increased insulin demand, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and free fatty acids. Fortunately,
islets have remarkable property to adapt to increased metabolic demand. This review focuses
on the mechanisms of islet adaptation to metabolic stress in obesity and insulin resistance
Keywords: Islets, adaptation, hypertrophy, epigenetics, beta-cells, models.
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