Multiscale inorganic hierarchically materials: towards an improved orthopaedic regenerative medicine

Author(s): Juan M. Ruso, Javier Sartuqui, Paula V. Messina.

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 15 , Issue 22 , 2015

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Abstract:

Bone is a biologically and structurally sophisticated multifunctional tissue. It dynamically responds to biochemical, mechanical and electrical clues by remodelling itself and accordingly the maximum strength and toughness are along the lines of the greatest applied stress. The challenge is to develop an orthopaedic biomaterial that imitates the micro- and nano-structural elements and compositions of bone to locally match the properties of the host tissue resulting in a biologically fixed implant. Looking for the ideal implant, the convergence of life and materials sciences occurs. Researchers in many different fields apply their expertise to improve implantable devices and regenerative medicine. Materials of all kinds, but especially hierarchical nano-materials, are being exploited. The application of nano-materials with hierarchical design to calcified tissue reconstructive medicine involve intricate systems including scaffolds with multifaceted shapes that provides temporary mechanical function; materials with nano-topography modifications that guarantee their integration to tissues and that possesses functionalized surfaces to transport biologic factors to stimulate tissue growth in a controlled, safe, and rapid manner. Furthermore materials that should degrade on a timeline coordinated to the time that takes the tissues regrow, are prepared. These implantable devices are multifunctional and for its construction they involve the use of precise strategically techniques together with specific material manufacturing processes that can be integrated to achieve in the design, the required multifunctionality. For such reasons, even though the idea of displacement from synthetic implants and tissue grafts to regenerative-medicine-based tissue reconstruction has been guaranteed for well over a decade, the reality has yet to emerge. In this paper, we examine the recent approaches to create enhanced bioactive materials. Their design and manufacturing procedures as well as the experiments to integrate them into engineer hierarchical inorganic materials for their practical application in calcified tissue reparation are evaluated.

Keywords: Bio-glass, Bioactive scaffolds, Bone, Hydroxyapatite, Templates, Tissue engineering.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 22
Year: 2015
Page: [2290 - 2305]
Pages: 16
DOI: 10.2174/1568026615666150605115610
Price: $58

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