Bone is a biologically and structurally sophisticated multifunctional tissue. It dynamically
responds to biochemical, mechanical and electrical clues by remodelling itself and accordingly the
maximum strength and toughness are along the lines of the greatest applied stress. The challenge is to
develop an orthopaedic biomaterial that imitates the micro- and nano-structural elements and compositions
of bone to locally match the properties of the host tissue resulting in a biologically fixed implant.
Looking for the ideal implant, the convergence of life and materials sciences occurs. Researchers in
many different fields apply their expertise to improve implantable devices and regenerative medicine. Materials of all
kinds, but especially hierarchical nano-materials, are being exploited. The application of nano-materials with hierarchical
design to calcified tissue reconstructive medicine involve intricate systems including scaffolds with multifaceted shapes
that provides temporary mechanical function; materials with nano-topography modifications that guarantee their integration
to tissues and that possesses functionalized surfaces to transport biologic factors to stimulate tissue growth in a controlled,
safe, and rapid manner. Furthermore materials that should degrade on a timeline coordinated to the time that takes
the tissues regrow, are prepared. These implantable devices are multifunctional and for its construction they involve the
use of precise strategically techniques together with specific material manufacturing processes that can be integrated to
achieve in the design, the required multifunctionality. For such reasons, even though the idea of displacement from synthetic
implants and tissue grafts to regenerative-medicine-based tissue reconstruction has been guaranteed for well over a
decade, the reality has yet to emerge. In this paper, we examine the recent approaches to create enhanced bioactive materials.
Their design and manufacturing procedures as well as the experiments to integrate them into engineer hierarchical
inorganic materials for their practical application in calcified tissue reparation are evaluated.
Keywords: Bio-glass, Bioactive scaffolds, Bone, Hydroxyapatite, Templates, Tissue engineering.
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