Cyclophilins belong to a group of proteins that possess peptidyl prolyl isomerase activity
and catalyse the cis-trans conversion of proline peptide bonds. Cyclophilin members play important
roles in protein folding and as molecular chaperones, in addition to a well-established role as host factors
required for completion of the virus life cycle. Members of the cyclophilin family are overexpressed
in a range of human malignancies including hepatocellular cancer, pancreatic cancer, nonsmall
cell lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and glioblastoma multiforme, however, their
precise role in tumourigenesis remains unclear. In recent years, mounting evidence supports a role for
prolyl isomerisation during mammalian cell division; a process with striking similarity to plasma membrane remodelling
during virus replication. Here, we summarise our current understanding of the role of cyclophilins in cancer. We review
the function of cyclophilins during mammalian cell division and during HIV-1 infection, and highlight common processes
involving members of the ESCRT and Rab GTPase families.
Keywords: Cancer, cyclophilin, CypA, cytokinesis, ESCRT, Rab, viral.
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