The sactibiotics are a recently designated subclass of bacteriocins that contain characteristic
cysteine sulphur to α -carbon linkages mediated through post-translational modifications. They are a
relatively small subclass of bacteriocins compared to the most thoroughly studied lantibiotics. The sactibiotics
that have been extensively studied thus far are thuricin CD, subtilosin A, thurincin H, and
propionicin F. Despite their recent discovery, there have already been significant advances made in the
study of sactibiotics, most notably the discovery of the narrow spectrum anti-Clostridium difficile sactibiotic, thuricin CD.
In addition, scientists have gained insights into the mechanisms of action of the sactibiotic subtilosin A, which targets Listeria
monocytogenes, Gardnerella vaginalis, and other pathogens. Also, the development of heterologous host systems
and homologous expression and site-directed mutagenesis systems for the sactibiotic thurincin H have opened up many
opportunities for further studies on this sactibiotic. These and other recent studies concerning the molecular biology, 3D
structural elucidation, mode of action, self-protection mechanisms, and antimicrobial spectrum of the sactibiotic subgroup
of bacteriocins are discussed in this review.