Treatment Discontinuation in Adult HIV-Infected Patients on First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Nigeria

Author(s): O.O. Agbaji, I.O. Abah, K.D. Falang, A.O. Ebonyi, J. Musa, P. Ugoagwu, P.A. Agaba, A.S. Sagay, T. Jolayemi, P. Okonkwo, J.A. Idoko, Phyllis J. Kanki.

Journal Name: Current HIV Research

Volume 13 , Issue 3 , 2015

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Abstract:

Background: Retention in care and treatment services is critical to health outcomes of individuals diagnosed and living with HIV. We evaluated the incidence of and risk factors for treatment discontinuation (TD) in a large adult HIV population on ART in Nigeria.

Method: A retrospective cohort study of adult HIV patients initiated on first-line ART between 2004 and 2011 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in Nigeria. Follow up information of participants was retrieved from various sources (patient visit database, pharmacy data and patients charts) up to the end of 2012. The primary study endpoint was TD, defined as discontinuation of ART for any reason, including death or loss to follow-up (lack of pharmacy pick-up for periods ≥12 months). The Incidence and hazard for TD were estimated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional regression analysis, respectively.

Result: Overall, 3,362 (28%) patients discontinued treatment during 49,436 person-years (py) of follow-up (incidence rate (IR) 6.8 TD per 100 py). The hazard of treatment discontinuation decreased with increasing age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98 - 0.99). Other independent risk factors for treatment discontinuation were: being unmarried (aHR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.12-1.38), having primary or secondary level of education as compared to tertiary level education (aHR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.12-1.40) and average percent adherence to drug refill visits <95% (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.13; 95% CI: 1.9-2.40). Compared to tenofovir, greater hazard of TD was noted in patients initiated on ART containing didanosine (aHR) 1.73; 95% CI: 1.03-2.91), but lower in those initiated on zidovudine containing regimen (aHR 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69-0.86).

Conclusion: Long-term treatment discontinuation rate in this study was comparable to estimates in resource-rich countries. Younger patients, as well as patients with lower educational levels and those with poor adherence had significant hazards for treatment discontinuation and should be the target of interventions to reduce treatment discontinuation and improve retention, especially within the first year of ART.

Keywords: ART, HIV, Loss to follow-up, Nigeria, treatment discontinuation.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 13
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2015
Page: [184 - 192]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1570162X1303150506181945
Price: $58

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