Ovarian cancer accounts for more deaths than any other gynecologic malignancy. According
to the Ovarian Cancer National Alliance, overall mortality rates due to ovarian cancer have not
significantly improved in 40 years, a statistic that highlights the need for innovative treatment strategies.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are part of an emerging immunotherapeutic model that seeks to
“inhibit the inhibitors” of adequate cancer immunosurveillance. Immune checkpoints encompass a variety
of inhibitory pathways that downregulate an immune response, which allows them to assume an important physiologic
role in maintaining homeostasis. While cancer cells are adept at utilizing these pathways to their advantage, basic
scientists, translational researchers, and clinical trialists are making great strides in this area of investigation. This review
article will focus on the development of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies, their current role in the treatment
of advanced stage EOC, and recently published patents that incorporate the use of immune checkpoint inhibition in
the treatment of cancer.
Keywords: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), immune checkpoint, immunoediting, ipilimumab,
nivolumab, ovarian cancer, pembrolizumab, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1).
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport