Actions of Adjunctive Nutritional Antioxidants in Periodontitis and Prevalent Systemic Inflammatory Diseases

Author(s): U. El-Shinnawi, M. Soory.

Journal Name: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets
(Formerly Current Drug Targets - Immune, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders)

Volume 15 , Issue 4 , 2015

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Abstract:

Common risk markers for periodontitis and prevalent systemic comorbidities indicate similarities in their progression and molecular mechanisms involved. Resultant pro-oxidant disease profiles provide scope for attenuating their pathogeneses with appropriate adjunctive antioxidants. Levels of oxidative stress markers 8-hydroxy-deoxguanosine (8-HOdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) are significantly higher in periodontitis and other chronic inflammatory conditions. There is a clear link between periodontitis and diseases associated with significant systemic inflammatory loading, such as metabolic syndrome. Micro- and macro-nutrients have proven to be effective in curbing molecular mechanisms that generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. A Mediterranean diet rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grain, nuts, fish, olive oil and red wine in moderation, could be attributed to the lower occurrence of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and other inflammatory diseases in this region. A significant number of naturally occurring flavonoids have been identified in these products. Flavonoids comprising flavonols, flavones and isoflavones are potent free radical scavengers, effective in inhibiting lipid peroxidation, with anti-atherosclerotic and antihypertensive effects.The phenolic compound oleocanthal isolated in virgin olive oil has similar anti-inflammatory actions to that of ibuprofen. The anti-atherogenic effects of MUFA and PUFA in nuts, enhance endothelial function by reducing total cholesterol, oxidized LDL, hs-CRP, sVCAM-1 levels, lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory markers. Epigenetics influenced by environmental factors and interactions between genes and nutrients, are important considerations in influencing these effects. Using antioxidants as therapeutic adjuncts could enhance the antioxidant capacity of an inherent glutathione system and overcome oxidative effects, thereby mitigating therapeutic side-effects.

Keywords: Chronic inflammatory diseases, mechanisms of action, metabolic syndrome, nutritional antioxidants, oxidative stress, periodontitis, therapeutic adjuncts.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2015
Page: [261 - 276]
Pages: 16
DOI: 10.2174/1871530315666150429125041
Price: $58

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