Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is a thrombotic-occlusive and an inflammatory peripheral
arterial disease with unidentified aetiology. Thrombotic events can lead to limb loss in TAO patients,
who are typically young male smokers of low socioeconomic status. It is still unknown whether
the initial process is thrombosis or inflammation, so it is difficult to ascertain whether managing inflammation
or thrombosis improves the outcome of the disease. In this review, the possible mechanisms
of thrombosis in TAO are evaluated; the treatments, based on the discussed mechanisms of
thrombosis in TAO, are then reviewed and the challenges and limitations associated with the management of TAO are discussed.
Keywords: Buerger’s disease, Nitric oxide, Thromboangiitis obliterans, Thrombolysis, Thrombosis, Treatment.
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