Background: Lifestyle changes have led to a high global incidence of type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Evidence suggests beneficial effects of the intake of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in patients with T2DM.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between habitual fatty acid intake and inflammatory biomarkers in Mexican individuals with and without T2DM.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of 120 adults with and 120 without T2DM; anthropometric assessments (BMI, waist circumference and body fat), blood pressure, PUFA intake, biochemical analyses (glucose and lipid profile) and inflammation biomarkers (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1 β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-13) was undertaken.
Results: Low n-3 intake was found in both groups (0.68 ± 0.55g/day in T2DM vs 0.81 ± 0.53 g/day in non-T2DM). Comparison between groups showed significantly higher concentrations of triacylglcerols (p=.001) and IL-6 (p=.018) in the T2DM group, as well as significant correlations between serum TNF-α and total n-3 fatty acid intake (r=.507, p= .001), EPA (r=.284, p=.002), DHA (r=.404, p=.001), and a weak but significant correlation between serum IL-1β and total PUFA (r=.245, p=.005), total n-3 (r=.214, p=.019) and total n-6 (r=.241, p=.008) intake.
Conclusions: Patients with T2DM had a tendency for higher pro-inflammatory cytokines than subjects without T2DM. There was an association between PUFA intake and pro-inflammatory biomarkers in patients with T2DM. Further studies of anti-inflammatory nutrients and plasma and cell fatty acid profiles are needed to corroborate the present findings in patients with and without T2DM.