Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease with large variation in the relative contributions
of insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction between subgroups and individuals. Some of these differences
are reflected in the way people are diagnosed. However, differences in glucose regulation exist
among individuals even in those with comparable diagnostic glucose levels. In this review we address
the heterogeneity of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes with special emphasis on differences in the
pathophysiology and treatment responses related to the diagnostic criteria. We also discuss whether novel glycaemic
markers of diabetes risk can provide additional information to the established diagnostic criteria. A better understanding
of the underlying mechanisms responsible for elevated fasting versus postprandial glucose concentration, as well as
knowledge about the expected responsiveness to treatment in individuals with different clinical characteristics at diagnosis,
may contribute to optimising strategies for management of hyperglycaemia in both pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: Beta cell dysfunction, diabetes management, diabetes prediction, diagnostic criteria, fasting glucose, insulin resistance,
obesity, physical activity, postprandial glucose, weight loss.
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport