The degradation of intracellular proteins is targeted by ubiquitin via non-lysosomal proteolytic
pathway in the cell system. These ubiquitin molecules have been found to be conserved from
yeast to humans. Ubiquitin proteasome machinery utilises ATP and other mechanisms for degrading
proteins of cytosol as well as nucleus. This process of ubiquitination is regulated by activating the E3
enzyme ligase, involved in phosphorylation. In humans, proteins which regulate the cell cycle are controlled by ubiquitin;
therefore the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway can be targeted for novel anti-cancer strategies. Dysregulation of the components
of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases like cancer and inflammation. The primary triggering
mechanism (apoptosis) of these diseases can also be induced when TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) binds
to its specific receptor DR4 and DR5. In this review, the emerging prospects and importance of ubiquitin proteasome
pathway as an evolving anticancer strategy have been discussed. Current challenges in the field of drug discovery have
also been discussed on the basis of recent patents on cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.
Keywords: Apoptosis, cancer, CDK, NF-KB alternative pathway, p27 (a cyclin dependent kinase), proteasome pathway,
TRAIL pathway, ubiquitin, ubiquitin machinery.
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