Nanoparticles for Diagnostics and Imaging
Pp. 3-46 (44)
Miguel Larguinho, Sara Figueiredo, Ana Cordeiro, Fábio Ferreira Carlos, Milton Cordeiro, Pedro Pedrosa and Pedro V. Baptista
Nanoparticles possess unique optical and physic-chemical properties that
may potentiate applications in biomedicine, in particular in diagnostics, therapy and
imaging. Advances on biomolecular diagnostics strategies have greatly focused on
single molecule detection and characterization of DNA, RNA or proteins through
improved nanoparticle-based platforms. Nanoparticles improve analytical capability
when compared to traditional techniques with high resolution and medium-high
throughput. Also, particular interest has been directed at SNP detection, gene expression
profiles and biomarker characterization through colorimetric, spectrometric or
Molecular imaging has also benefited from the introduction of nanoparticles in standard
techniques towards non-invasive imaging procedures that can be used to highlight regions
of interest, allowing the characterization of biological processes at the cellular and/or
molecular level. Several imaging modalities are associated with low sensitivity, an issue
that can be tackled by the use of probes, e.g. contrast agents for X-ray and magnetic
resonance imaging, radiolabelled molecules for nuclear medicine. Furthermore,
nanoparticles can be used as vehicles that deliver specifically these contrast agents, leading
to overcome the limitations of conventional modalities.
This chapter will discuss the use of nanoparticles in biomolecular recognition and
imaging applications, focusing those already being translated into clinical settings.
Current knowledge will be addressed as well as its evolution towards the future of
nanoparticle-based biomedical applications.
Cancer diagnostics, contrast enhancement, cross-linking assay, DNA
detection, gold nanoparticles, gold nanoprobes, liposomes, magnetic nanoparticles,
metal enhanced fluorescence, metal nanoparticles, molecular resonance imaging,
nanomedicine, nanoparticles, optical imaging, photoacoustic imaging, Positron Emission Tomography, quantum dots, RNA detection, silver nanoparticles,
1CIGMH/DCV, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia/Universidade NOVA de Lisboa. Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.