Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Diseasemodifying
drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression.
The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence
and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards
developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs
have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod
was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl
fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and
discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under
development for the selective treatment of MS.
Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, oral drugs, medication adherence, efficacy, safety.
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