Phytohormone crosstalk is crucial for plant defenses against pathogens
and insects in which salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) play
key roles. These low molecular mass signals critically trigger and modulate plant
resistance against biotrophic as well as necrotrophic pathogens through a complex
signaling network that even involves participation of other hormones. Crosstalk
among SA, JA and ET is mediated by different molecular players, considered as integral part of these crosscommunicating
signal transduction pathways. Recent progress has revealed that the positive versus negative interactions
among those pathways ultimately enable a plant to fine-tune its defense against specific aggressors. On the other
hand, pathogens have evolved strategies to manipulate the signaling network to their favour in order to intensify virulence
on host plant. Here we review recent advances and current knowledge on the role of classical primary defense
hormones SA, JA and ET as well as their synergistic and antagonistic interaction in plant disease and immune responses.
Crosstalk with other hormones such as abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroids, cytokinins and melatonin is also
discussed mainly in plant disease resistance. In addition to our keen focus on hormonal crosstalk, this review also
highlights potential implication of positive and negative regulatory interactions for developing an efficient disease
management strategy through manipulation of hormone signaling in plant.
Keywords: Crosstalk, ethylene, jasmonic acid, plant resistance, salicylic acid.
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