Despite therapeutic advances candidiasis remains a common fungal infection most frequently
caused by C. albicans and may occur as vulvovaginal candidiasis or thrush, a mucocutaneous
candidiasis. Candidiasis frequently occurs in newborns, in immune-deficient people like AIDS patients,
and in people being treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. It is mainly due to C. albicans
while other species such as C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei are increasingly
isolated. OTC antifungal dosage forms such as creams and gels can be used for effective treatment of
local candidiasis. Whereas, for preventing spread of the disease to deeper vital organs, candidiasis
antifungal chemotherapy is preferred. Use of probiotics and development of novel vaccines is an advanced approach for
the prevention of candidiasis. Present review summarizes the diagnosis, current status and challenges in the treatment and
prevention of candidiasis with prime focus on host defense against candidiasis, advancements in diagnosis, probiotics role
and recent progress in the development of vaccines against candidiasis.
Keywords: Antifungal agents, C. albicans, candidiasis, host defense, probiotics, vaccine.
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