Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by the chronic autoimmune destruction of insulin producing beta cells. Beta
cell replacement therapy through whole pancreas or islet transplantation is a therapeutic option for patients in which a stable
glucose control is not achievable with exogenous insulin therapy. Long-term insulin independence is, however, hampered
by the recipient immune response that includes activation of inflammatory pathways and specific allo- and autoimmunity.
The identification and monitoring of soluble and cellular biomarkers are of critical relevance for the prediction
of graft damage, for the evaluation of responses to immune-modulating therapy, and for target pathways identification to
generate novel drugs or therapeutic approaches. The final objective of immune monitoring is to find ways to improve the
outcome of pancreas and islet transplantation. In this review, we discuss the available tools to monitor the innate, humoral
and cellular responses after islet and pancreas transplantation, and the most relevant findings generated by these measurements.
Keywords: Autoantibodies, autoreactive T cells, diabetes, homeostatic proliferation, immune monitoring, islet transplantation,
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