Current Cancer Drug Targets

Ruiwen Zhang 
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
1300 Coulter Drive
Amarillo, TX 79106
USA

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Transposable Elements in Cancer and Other Human Diseases

Author(s): Benoit Chenais.

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences representing a substantial fraction of most genomes. Through the creation of new genes and functions, TEs are important elements of genome plasticity and evolution. However TE insertion in human genomes may be the cause of genetic dysfunction and alteration of gene expression contributing to cancer and other human diseases. Besides the chromosome rearrangements induced by TE repeats, this mini-review shows how gene expression may be altered following TE insertion, for example by the creation of new polyadenylation sites, by the creation of new exons (exonization), by exon skipping and by other modification of alternative splicing, and also by the alteration of regulatory sequences. Through the correlation between TE mobility and the methylation status of DNA, the importance of chromatin regulation is evident in several diseases. Finally this overview ends with a brief presentation of the use of TEs as biotechnology tools for insertional mutagenesis screening and gene therapy with DNA transposons.

Keywords: Alternative splicing, gene expression, gene therapy, human disease, promoter, recombination, retrotransposon, transposon.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2015
Page: [227 - 242]
Pages: 16
DOI: 10.2174/1568009615666150317122506
Price: $58