MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (~21nt), noncoding, and single-stranded RNAs that can
negatively regulate gene expression by binding to 3’UTRs of target mRNAs sequence-specifically to
affect their translation and/or stability. MiRNAs are involved in multiple developmental events in
various tissues and organs. Such events include dental enamel development. This review focuses on
the expression and functions of miRNAs regulated in enamel development. This study further discusses
the possible participation of signaling pathways affected by miRNAs during stem cell proliferation
or renewal, cell differentiation, and cusp patterning formation. Research on the enamel developmental
process and miRNA regulation mechanisms can facilitate better understanding of clinical
enamel malformation and provide potential therapeutic schemes.
Keywords: Ameloblast, amelogenesis imperfect, dental enamel, enamel development, miRNAs, signaling pathway.
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