Biodiversity Conservation - Challenges for the Future

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Natural Bioresources of North Eastern Region of India - Its Conservation and Proper Utilization

Pp. 71-88 (18)

Unni B.G., Bharadwaz M., Kalita M., Dey T., Gogoi K., Kalita J., Islam S.J. and Dutta P.

Abstract

Natural bioresources refers to all kinds of naturally occurring resources of biological origin. Biodiversity or biological diversity refers to the diversity of any kind of living organisms that exists in that particular area, region and country or on the earth. The North Eastern region of India comprises of the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Mizoram, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Tripura. This region of India is rich in biodiversity due to high rainfall and plenty of sunlight. This region can be addressed as the geographical ‘gateway’ for endemic flora as well as fauna. This area is one of the richest biomes of the world, endowed with a wide range of ecological conditions ranging from low lying areas of Assam to Kanchenzanga of Sikkim. The North East India represents a wide range of forests ranging from tropical to sub – tropical, temperate to alpine regions. Forests of this region consist of a huge number of endemic plants and animals. Two UNESCO World heritage sites namely, Kaziranga and Manas are also located in the North East belt (Report UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, UK). However, the valuable resources of this part of the country is depleting at an alarming rate due to unavoidable human activities, colonization, urbanization, agriculture, mining, transport, and technology. The natural hazards like floods, landslides are also adding to the loss of biodiversity. The conservation of the resources and their proper utilization with the modern techniques have long been realized in the region and it still requires scientific intervention and concerted efforts to ensure sustainable use of these resources and livelihood security.

Keywords:

Antibacterial activity, antimicrobial activity, biodiversity, bioresources, botanical garden, deforestation, endangered, endemism, fauna, flora, hotspots, medicinal plants, microorganisms, natural calamities, North East India, poaching, pollution, rainforest, sericulture, silkworm, sustainable utilization.

Affiliation:

Biotechnology Division CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat- 785006, Assam, India.