Challenging Cranial Arteriovenous Fistulas
Pp. 33-66 (34)
Arteriovenous fistulas, both pial and dural, are neurovascular malformations
which frequently have a poor natural history. Their treatment can be either endovascular
or neurosurgical. The evolution of neurointerventional materials and techniques
extended the indication for endovascular treatment to most of the arteriovenous fistulas.
A clear understanding of the vascular anatomy of arteriovenous fistulas is essential in
order to be able to treat them. Familiarity with neurovascular techniques and devices is
also important for choosing the proper treatment strategy in each case.
In this chapter the different types of fistulas are discussed with the most appropriate
treatment strategies in each situation, also taking into consideration the neurovascular
materials now available.
Dural arteriovenous fistula, endovascular treatment, pial arteriovenous
Department of Neuroradiology, Niguarda Ca’ Granda Hospital, Milano, Italy.