Cofilin-1 is a major actin depolymerizer in the central nervous system. It is a member of the
ADF/cofilin family that regulates the dynamics of actin filaments. The activity of cofilin-1 is regulated
by the modulation of phosphorylation at its Ser3 residue, and its proper function is crucial for the
structure and proper function of neurons. Cofilin rods, pathological structures composed of cofilin and
actin, form under stress conditions. A high cofilin/F-actin ratio, cofilin dephosphorylation and/or
cofilin oxidation are three major mechanisms of cofilin rod formation. Cofilin rods can be divided into
cytoplasmic rods and nuclear rods. Cytoplasmic rods have been proved to disrupt dendritic
transportation, cause synaptic loss and impair synaptic function, which maybe associated with neurodegenerative diseases
such as Alzheimer’s disease. On the other hand, the role of nuclear rods remains largely unknown. Further studies are
needed to investigate the relationship and the underlying mechanisms of cofilin rod formation during the progression of
various neurological diseases.
Keywords: Cofilin, cofilin rod, neurological diseases, Synapse, Synaptic function.
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