Morbidity and mortality from diabetes and its complications are increasing in populations
globally. Different ethnic groups have varying degrees of risk. The concept of ethnicity encompasses
numerous factors relevant to health including genetics, socioeconomics and health behaviours. Ethnicity-related discordance in the glycaemic markers used to diagnose diabetes and to identify those at risk
of diabetes has been reported. Furthermore, many ethnicity- and country-specific diabetes risk prediction
models have been developed. This review provides a thorough discussion of the impact of ethnicity
on how diabetes is detected and the evidence for and against ethnicity-specific approaches to diagnosis.
Keywords: Ethnic groups, diabetes mellitus–type 2, diabetes mellitus, diagnosis, prediabetic state, glucose tolerance test,
haemoglobin A, glycosylated, blood glucose.
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