Dormancy in mycobacteria is defined as a stable but reversible non-replicating state in response
to stresses. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an important human pathogen, this state is responsible for latent
Tuberculosis. The current chemotherapy to defeat Tuberculosis while effective in killing growing tubercle
bacilli is largely ineffective in killing dormant bacilli. For this reason there is a recent interest to develop
new drugs against this disease in the latent form. To this aim, the knowledge of the molecular basis
of bacterial resuscitation from dormancy is necessary and of paramount importance. This review summarizes
the current knowledge on the complex mechanism of exit from mycobacterial dormancy; the main
molecular players responsible for mycobacterial resuscitation from dormancy are described and their role is discussed
from a structural perspective.
Keywords: Dormancy, mycobacteria, resuscitation, structure.
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