A Review on GABA/Glutamate Pathway for Therapeutic Intervention of ASD and ADHD

Author(s): Priyanka Purkayastha, Aruna Malapati, Perumal Yogeeswari, Dharmarajan Sriram.

Journal Name:Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 22 , Issue 15 , 2015

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Abstract:

Balance between excitatory glutamate and inhibitory GABA neurotransmitter is essential and critical for proper development and functioning of brain. GABAergic (gamma aminobutyric acid) and glutamatergic interneurons maintain excitability, integrity and synaptic plasticity. Several evidences implicated relative loss of inhibitory GABA with corresponding glutamate mediated hyperexcitation in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ASD is the common neurological disorder with an estimated relative occurrence of 0.5-1% of universal population. Several studies have demonstrated the imbalance of excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitters resulting from neurodevelopmental impairments in glutamatergic and GABAergic system, which might resemble common pathological mechanism for developmental disorders. This review focuses on the necessity for developing GABA enhancing and glutamate suppressing drug candidates, and illustrates the role of GABAergic and glutamatergic system in cognition and memory impairment involved in neurodevelopmental disorders, with emphasis on ASD and ADHD. The review also highlights the emerging drugs for neurodevelopmental disorders.

Keywords: AMPA/kainite/NMDA antagonist, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, GABA, GABA agonist, glutamate.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 22
ISSUE: 15
Year: 2015
Page: [1850 - 1859]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/0929867322666150209152712
Price: $58