Theory and Applications of NMR-Based Metabolomics in Human Disease Diagnosis
Pp. 93-130 (38)
Abdul-Hamid M. Emwas, Jasmeen S. Merzaban and Hacene Serrai
Metabolomics is a dynamic and emerging research field, joining proteomics,
transcriptomics and genomics in affording a comprehensive understanding of biological
systems and how these systems are affected by environmental stimuli and/or genetic
modification. Metabolomics is particularly helpful for identifying biomarkers of disease
processes such as the effects of a high fat diet on cardiovascular disease, providing
insight into the interaction between genes and diet. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
(NMR) and Mass spectrometry (MS) are the most common analytical tools in
metabolomics research. The high reproducibility of NMR-based techniques makes it
superior to other analytical techniques especially in terms of searching for new and
novel biomarkers in human diseases. Recently, NMR-based metabolomics approaches
have been proposed as a promising and powerful technique for diagnosis of several
human diseases. They have been used to investigate a wide range of diseases, through
the examination of different kinds of human samples, including urine, blood
plasma/serum, blister fluid, saliva, as well as intact tissue biopsies and tissue extracts.
However, several factors can influence the metabolic balance within the human body
and therefore in samples drawn from the body, including gender, age, fasting, diet,
emotional stress, drug administration, physical activity and life style, thus complicating
the use of NMR-based metabolomics approaches in diagnosing specific human disease.
This chapter highlights the potential applications of NMR-based metabolomics
approaches as a promising technique for diagnosis of human diseases.
Biomarker, cancer, COSY, diagnosis, HMBC, HRMAS, HSQC,
human disease, Inflammatory diseases, Lactate, metabolic profiling, metabolome,
metabolomics, metabonomics, MRS, neurological diseases, NMR, solvent
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, NMR Core Lab, Room 0149, Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.