Protein Arginine Deiminases and Associated Citrullination: Physiological Functions and Diseases Associated with Dysregulation

Author(s): Erin E. Witalison, Paul R. Thompson, Lorne J. Hofseth.

Journal Name: Current Drug Targets

Volume 16 , Issue 7 , 2015

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Abstract:

Human proteins are subjected to more than 200 known post-translational modifications (PTMs) (e.g., phosphorylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, S-nitrosylation, methylation, Nacetylation, and citrullination) and these PTMs can alter protein structure and function with consequent effects on the multitude of pathways necessary for maintaining the physiological homeostasis. When dysregulated, however, the enzymes that catalyze these PTMs can impact the genesis of countless diseases. In this review, we will focus on protein citrullination, a PTM catalyzed by the Protein Arginine Deiminase (PAD) family of enzymes. Specifically, we will describe the roles of the PADs in both normal human physiology and disease. The development of PAD inhibitors and their efficacy in a variety of autoimmune disorders and cancer will also be discussed.

Keywords: Apoptosis, autoimmune disease, citrullination, gene regulation, inflammatory disease, protein arginine deiminases.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 7
Year: 2015
Page: [700 - 710]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1389450116666150202160954
Price: $58

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