Cancer and aging are two similar processes representing the final outcome of timedependent
accumulation of various irreversible dysfunctions, mainly caused by stress-induced DNA
and cellular damages. Apoptosis and senescence are two types of cellular response to damages that are
altered in both cancer and aging, albeit through different mechanisms. Carcinogenesis is associated
with a progressive reduction in the ability of the cells to trigger apoptosis and senescence. In contrast,
in aging tissues, there is an increased accumulation of senescent cells, and the nature of apoptosis deregulation
varies depending on the tissue. Thus, the prevailing model suggests that apoptosis and cellular senescence function
as two essential tumor-suppressor mechanisms, ensuring the health of the individual during early and reproductive
stages of life, but become detrimental and promote aging later in life. The recent discovery that various anticancer agents,
including canonical inducers of apoptosis, act also as inducers of cellular senescence indicates that pro-senescence strategies
may have applications in cancer prevention therapy. Therefore, dissection of the mechanisms mediating the delicate
balance between apoptosis and cellular senescence will be beneficial in the therapeutic exploitation of both processes in
the development of future anticancer and anti-aging strategies, including minimizing the side effects of such strategies.
Here, we provide an overview of the roles of apoptosis and cellular senescence in cancer and aging.