Orthopedic disorders and trauma usually result in bone loss. Bone grafts are widely used to
replace this tissue. Bone grafts excluding autografts unfortunately have disadvantages like evoking
immune response, contamination and rejection. Autografts are of limited sources and optimum biomaterials
that can replace bone have been searched for several decades. Bioceramics, which have the similar inorganic structure of
natural bone, are widely used to regenerate bone or coat metallic implants. As people continuously look for a higher life quality,
there are developments in technology almost everyday to meet their expectations. Nanotechnology is one of such technologies
and it attracts everyone’s attention in biomaterial science. Nano scale biomaterials have many advantages like larger
surface area and higher biocompatibility and these properties make them more preferable than micro scale. Also, stem cells
are used for bone regeneration besides nano-bioceramics due to their differentiation characteristics. This review covers current
research on nano-bioceramics and mesenchymal stem cells and their role in bone regeneration.
Keywords: Bioceramics, bone, mesenchymal stem cells, nano scale, regeneration, tissue engineering.
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