Definitions (and Current Controversies) of Diabetes and Prediabetes

Author(s): Martin Buysschaert, Jose-Luis Medina, Benoit Buysschaert, Michael Bergman.

Journal Name: Current Diabetes Reviews

Volume 12 , Issue 1 , 2016

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Abstract:

Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes is mandatory. Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes is associated with long-term micro- and macrovascular as well as with neurological complications. Prediabetes predisposes patients to develop diabetes and macrovascular disease.

Diagnosis of diabetes is established on (at least) one of the following criteria: a fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l), a casual plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) in the presence of symptoms, a 2-h plasma glucose during the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) ≥ 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) and/or an HbA1c ≥ 6.5%.

Prediabetes is defined by the Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association as a fasting plasma glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dl (5.6 - 6.9 mmol/l) [a condition called Impaired Fasting Glucose] and/or by a 2-h plasma glucose during OGTT 140 - 199 mg/dl (7.8 - 11.0 mmol) [Impaired Glucose Tolerance] and/or a HbA1c level 5.7 - 6.4%, with however some potential discordance between tests.

The threshold of fasting plasma glucose defining Impaired Fasting Glucose as well as the adequacy of HbA1c as a correct diagnostic tool for prediabetes is still debated.

Keywords: Complications, controversies, definitions, diabetes, prediabetes.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 12
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2016
Page: [8 - 13]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1573399811666150122150233

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