Lung cancer is the leading cause of malignancy-related mortality worldwide. Metastases,
which account for 90% of lung cancer deaths, frequently target the skeleton, leading to rapid deterioration
in quality of life and premature death. The molecular mechanism underlying this progression,
especially the development of bone metastases, is largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous, noncoding
RNAs that function as negatively posttranscriptional gene regulators. Changes in miRNAs, which may exhibit either
oncogenic or tumor suppressive activity, are common in lung cancer. Over-expressed miRNAs may contribute to oncogenesis
by down-regulating tumor suppressors, whereas the loss of selected miRNAs may negatively regulate oncogenes
or factors related to tumorigenesis and progression. MiRNAs may activate or repress metastases. Specific miRNA
expression profiles may correlate with the response in treatment. We summarize recent findings and patents in the pathological
roles of miRNAs in the progression and bone metastases in lung cancer, and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic
options in the clinical management of lung cancer.
Keywords: Biomarker, bone metastases, lung cancer, miRNA, oncogenesis, squamous cell carcinoma.
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