Chitosan (CS) based nanocarriers have been extensively studied starting from early 90s. The
unique properties of CS and in particular its capability to interact with various epithelia and its mucoadhesion
potential have attracted many researchers. The mild preparation conditions of CS nanosystems offer
the opportunities to load stress sensitive hydrophilic macromolecules such as proteins and genetic materials.
Moreover CS nanosystems are able to protect their cargo from the environment (pH, enzymes). The safety
issues related to this polymer seem in part overcome at least for CS as polymeric solution. For this reason
skin and mucosae, in particular buccal and vaginal ones, seem the more promising administration routes with lower technical
and regulatory challenges. Even if several papers focused on CS nanocarriers for skin and mucosal (buccal and vaginal)
administration have been published, other work should be done aiming at optimizing CS nanocarriers in view of
Keywords: Buccal and vaginal mucosae, Chitosan, Local and systemic delivery, Nanoparticles, Skin.
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