Sepsis remains to be a significant health care issue associated with high mortality and healthcare
cost, despite the extensive effort to better understand the pathophysiology of the sepsis. Recently updated
clinical guideline for severe sepsis and septic shock, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign 2012”, emphasizes the
importance of early goal-directed therapy, which can be implemented in intraoperative management of sepsis
patients. Herein, we review the updates of current guideline and discuss its application to anesthesic management.
Furthermore, we review the recent advance in knowledge of sepsis pathophysiology, focusing on immune modulation,
which may lead to new clinical therapeutic approach to sepsis.