Nanotechnology has brought brand new concept into the targeted radionuclide therapy field.
Radionuclides decaying by alpha particle cascade, due to their high linear energy transfer deposit the
decay energy in a very small tissue volume, usually of few cells. Main disadvantage of these
radionuclides is that no chelator or other type of labeled molecule can withhold the recoil energy of
daughter hot atoms generated in such decays. Every hot daughter atom is thus immediately released
from the carrier molecule and may cause severe damage to healthy tissues in vivo, particularly when
applied systemically. Some nano-sized engineered constructs are due to their physical and chemical
properties at least partially able to retain recoiled atoms and ensure proper therapeutical dose targeting. An overview of
various approaches and attempts is given in this paper together with an outlook for prospective solutions and their
applications. Few recent patents to the topic have been reviewed and cited.
Keywords: In vivo generators, nanoconstruct, nanoparticles, targeted alpha particle therapy.
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