An “Enigmatic” L-Carnosine (β-Alanyl-L-Histidine)? Cell Proliferative Activity as a Fundamental Property of a Natural Dipeptide Inherent to Traditional Antioxidant, Anti-Aging Biological Activities: Balancing and a Hormonally Correct Agent, Novel Patented Oral Therapy Dosage Formulation for Mobility, Skeletal Muscle Power and Functional Performance, Hypothalamic-Pituitary- Brain Relationship in Health, Aging and Stress Studies

Author(s): Mark A. Babizhayev, Yegor E. Yegorov.

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation

Volume 9 , Issue 1 , 2015

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Abstract:

Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are major neuroendocrine regulators of human body metabolism being driven directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. The alternative physiological or therapeutic interventions utilizing the pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazole-containing dipeptides (non-hydrolized oral form of carnosine, carcinine, N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops) can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent ageing. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is synthesized in mammalian skeletal muscle. There is an evidence that the release of carnosine from the skeletal muscle sarcomeres moieties during physical exercise affects autonomic neurotransmission and physiological functions. Carnosine released from skeletal muscle during exercise acts as a powerful afferent physiological signaling stimulus for hypothalamus, may be transported into the hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), specifically to TMN-histamine neurons and hydrolyzed herewith via activities of carnosine-degrading enzyme (carnosinase 2) localized in situ. Through the colocalized enzymatic activity of Histidine decarboxylase in the histaminergic neurons, the resulting L-histidine may subsequently be converted into histamine, which could be responsible for the effects of carnosine on neurotransmission and physiological function.

Carnosine and its imidazole-containing dipeptide derivatives are renowned for their anti-aging, antioxidant, membrane protective, metal ion chelating, buffering, anti-glycation/ transglycating activities used to prevent and treat a spectrum of age-related and metabolic diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease, sight threatening eye diseases, Diabetes mellitus and its complications, cancers and other disorders due to their wide spectrum biological activities. The precursor of carnosine (and related imidazole containing compounds) synthesis in skeletal muscles beta-alanine is used as the oral supplement by athletes to achieve the fine sporting art results due to the buffering activities of carnosine and its related imidazole- containing compounds which contribute to the maintenance of the acid-base balance in the acting muscles. This work originally emphasizes that overall data indicate the signaling activities of carnosine in skeletal and cardiac muscles switching on the mechanisms of exercise-induced telomere protection and point to the stress response and growth/cellular proliferation pathways as high-priority candidates for the ongoing studies and therapeutic concepts. The therapeutic interventions utilizing the specific oral formulation (Can-C Plus), timing dosing and pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazolecontaining dipeptides can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent aging. The patented therapeutic concept protects the existence of the interesting physiological major activities, better controls and therapeutic treatments for aging/age-related disorders (including age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function) using carnosine dipeptide for cellular rejuvenation and manipulating telomeres and enzyme telomerase activity that may reduce some of the physiological declines that accompany aging.

Keywords: Age-related diseases, carcinine, cumulative oxidative stress, exercise stimuli, growth/cellular proliferation pathways in muscle, healthy aging, hypothalamic hormones, life expectancy and metabolism, natural imidazole-containing peptidomimetics, neuroendocrine regulation of metabolism, N-acetylcarnosine, oral form of non-hydrolized carnosine, pharmaconutrition provision, telomeres and telomerase biology, telomere length protection.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 9
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2015
Page: [1 - 64]
Pages: 64
DOI: 10.2174/1872211309666141218145408

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